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Betekenis van
Engelse wetenschappelijke namen & botanische termen

by Guy de Kinder (www.houtwal.be)

Plantnames explained A.

a- (an-) = without, lacking (anacanthus = spineless; amorpha = without a definite form; Arachis = without a rachis, the peanut genus /
ab- = prefix meaning 'away from' or 'departing'
abaxial= on the side of a lateral organ away from the axis or stem (cf. adaxial)
aberrant = deparing from the normal or usual
abortive = imperfectly developed; defective; barron
apetalus = without petals / aphyllus = without leaves / apterus = without a wing)
abr- = delicate (Abrophyllum = delicate leaved)
acanth- referring to a thorn, spines (Acanthus) (acanthoides = Acanthus-like / chrysanthicum = golden-spined)
acaul- = stemless (caul = stem) (acaulis)
-ace(...) =  = partaking of (rosaceus / rosaceum = rosy)
acephal- = headless, without a head (ceph = head) (acephalus)
acer- = referring to the genus, Acer, the ancient Latin name of the maple tree (aceroides = Maple-like)
acerb- = harsh, bitter, stinging (acerbifolia)
aceros- = needle-like (acerosus)
acet- = referring to acid (acetophylla = acid + leaf)
acicul- = referring to a needle (acicularis = needle-like)
acin- = referring to a saber (shape) (acinitus / acinaceus)
acri- = acrid, sharp (acris / acrifolia = sharp-leaved)
acro- = referring to the top of an entity, height (Acrocomia = hair at the top, a palm genus with pinnate leaves)
actin- = referring to a ray (Actinidia, the Kiwi Fruit; cut one across and see the rayed arrangement of the carpels (ovaries)) (actinophylla = Rayed leaves)
aculeat- = sting, prickle (aculeatus)
acuminat- = pointed, tapering (acuminatus)
acut- = acute, sharp (acutissima = very pointed / acutangulatus = acute + angle / acutifidus = acutely; cut / acutifolius = sharp + leaf / acutus)
ad- = to, on, onto (adnatum = joined to / adpressus = pressed against)
adeno- = referring to a gland (Adenophora = gland-bearing) (adenophylla = glandular leaf)
adnat- = joined (adnatus)
adven- = adventive (advenuus)
aequi- / equi- = equal (aequinoctialis = equinox, )
aer- = referring to the air (aeranthos = air flower)
aestiv- = referring to summer (aestivus)
aethiopi- = referring to Ethiopia - or Africa in general (aethiopium)
affin- = related (affinis / affine)
agerat- = referring to the genus Ageratum (ageratifolia = Ageratum-like leaves)
aggreg- = clustered, aggregated (aggregatus)
agr- = referring to fields or farms (agrarius / agrestis)
alat- = winged or wing-like (alatus)
alb- = white (albiflorens = white-flowered / albidum / albomaculatum = white-spotted / albicans / albicaulis = white-stemmed)
alli- = referring to the genus Allium which contains the onion, garlic, leeks, etc. (alliacea)
alpestr- = alpine (alpestris)
alpin- = referring to alpine regions (alpinus)
alt- = referring to height (altus / altissimus = very tall)
altai- = Siberian (altaicus)
altern- = alternate (alternifolia)
amabil- = lovely (amabilis)
amar- = bitter (amara)
amethysti- = violet-colored (amethysticus)
amoen- = charming, lovely (amoena)
ampel- = referring to a vine (Ampelopsis = like a vine)
amphi- = both, two (amphibius)
amphor- = referring to an urn, a pitcher (amphoricaulis = stem shaped like a pitcher)
ampl- = ample, large (amplissimus = very large)
amplexi- = clasping (amplexicaulis = clasping the stem)
amplexicaul: stem-clasping
ampul- = referring to a flask (shape) (ampullacea)
amurensis hailing from Siberia
amygdal- = almond-like (amygdalinus)
anatol- = referring to Asia Minor (anatoliensis)
anceps two-edged
andi- = referring to the Andes (andicola / andinus)
andr- = referring to the male part, usually the anthers (androgynus = male + female parts, indicating that both male and female flowers are found on the plant)
anemo- = referring to wind (Anemone = wind flower)
angiosperm: flowering plant, plants with ovules enclosed in ovary (cf. gymnosperm)
angli- = English (anglicum)
angui- = referring to a snake (shape) (anguinus)
angul- = referring to an angle (angularis / angulatus / angulosus)
angust- = narrow (angustus / angustifolia = narrow leaved)
anis- = unequal (Anisacanthus = unequal thorns)
annu- = annual (annuus)
annual: completing the life-cycle within one year (cf. perennial)
annul- = ringed, annular (annularis / annulatus)
anomal- = anomalous, unusual, abnormal (anomalus)
anth- = referring to a male part (the anther), - a flower (Anthurium = flower + tail)
anti- = against (Antiacantha = against the spine - a bromeliad)
antill- = referring to the West Indies, Antilles (antillaris)
antipod- = referring to the Antipodes or the polar regions (antipodus)
antiqu- = ancient (antiquorus / antiquus)
apenn- = referring to the Apennines Mts. (Italy) (apenninus)
apert- = open, uncovered, bare (apertus)
apiculat- = with a point (apiculatus)
appendic- = referring to an appendage (appendiculatus)
applanatum = flattened
applicatus = joined, attached
aqu- = referring to water (habitat) (aquatica / aquatilis / aqueus)
aquil- = eagle-like (aquilegia / aquilinus)
arab- = referring to Arabia (arabicus)
arachn- / aran- = referring to spiders (araneosa / arachnoides = like a spider)
arbor- = referring to trees (arborescens / arboricola / arborea)
arbus- = referring to a tree (arbusculus)
archont- = majestic, noble (Archontophoenix = majestic (date) palm)
arct- = referring to a bear (Arctotis = bear's ear)
arcuat- = referring to a bow (shape) (arcuatus)
arec- = referring to the genus Areca (palms) which, itself comes from a Malaysian word meaning, a cluster of nuts (arecoides = Areca-like)
arena- = referring to sand (arenarius)
areol- = with an aereole, pitted (areolatus)
arg- = referring to silver (argentea / argentatum / argophyllus = silver-leaved / argyraeus)
argut- = sharp, pointed (argutus)
arist- = referring to a beard (hairy, bristly) (aristatus / aristosus)
arma- = armed (armatus)
arom- = referring to odor (aromatica)
arrect- = erect (arrectus)
articul- = jointed, articulate (articulatus)
arund- = referring to a reed (Arundinaria, the giant native reed) (arundinaceus
arven- = referring to cultivation (arvensis)
ascendens ascending
asper- = rough (aspera / asperata / asper / aspericaulis = rough-stemmed / asperrimus = very rough)
aspera: rough to the touch; hence asperites, asperate; rough or harsch (dimin. asperulous)
assimil- = like unto (assimilis)
assurg- = sprawling, clambering (assurgens)
astr- = referring to a star (Astrocaryum, star-nut, referring to the markings on the seeds of this palm genus)
-astr(...) =  = like unto (liliastrum = like a lily)
ater = black
atr- = extreme, dark (atropurpurea = deep purple) (atratus = black / atrorubens = dark red / atrovirens = dark green)
atro-: prefix meaning 'dark'
attenu- = attenuated, drawn-out to a point (attenuatus)
attic- = Greek (atticum)
august- = august, noble, majestic (augusta)
aurant- = referring to the color orange (Citrus aurantifolia, the lime (go figger!); aurantifolia = orange-leaved / auranticus)
aure- = golden (aureus / aurespina = golden-spined)
auri- = referring to an ear (shape) (auritum / auriculatum)
austr- = southern, Australian (australis)
avi- = referring to a bird, birdlike (avium / aviculare)
axill- = referring to axils (axillaris)
azur- = referring to the color blue (azureum)

Plantnames explained B.

bacc- = referring to berries (baccata / baccifera = berry-bearing)
balear- referring to the Balearic Islands (balearica)
bambus- = referring to bamboo (bambusoides = like bamboo)
barbadensis native to Barbados
barbar- = foreign (barbarus)
barbat- = bearded (barbatus)
barbi- = referring to beards or barbs (barbigera = bearing barbs)
basil- = royal (basilicum) ALSO basal (basilaris)
bell- = handsome, pretty (bellus / bellatus)
benghalensis native to the State of Bengal in India
betul- = referring to the beech tree genus, Betula, the ancient Latin name of the tree (betuloides = like a beech)
bi- = referring to the number two, twice (bipinnatus = twice- = pinnate / bicarinatus = two- = keeled / bicornis = two- = horned / bicolor = two- = colored / bifidus = two + cut / bifurcatus = two + forked)
- = bi(...) =  = referring to life (Dendrobium = tree + life, because this orchid genus is epiphytic on trees)
bienn- = biennial (biennis)
bifurcat- = twice- = forked (bifurcata)
bland- = mild, pleasant (blanda)
- = blast(...) =  = referring to an embryo (Rhopaloblaste = club- = shaped embryo)
blephar- = referring to an eyelash, therefore, fringed (blepharophylla = fringed leaves)
bombyc- = referring to silk (bombycina)
bon- = good (bonus / bona- = nox = good/beautiful night)
boreal- = northern (borealis)
botry- = referring to a cluster (botryoides = cluster- = like)
brach- = referring to a branch or an arm (brachiatus)
brachy- = short, squat (brachypodum = short foot)
bract- = referring to bracts (bracteata) - = a bract is a leaf- = like OR petal- = like structure beneath the truepetals of some flowers (bracteosum)
brevi- = short (brevis / brevicaulis = short- = stemmed / brevispina = short- = spined / brevipes = short- = footed, stalked / brevirostris = short- = beaked / brevisetus = short- = bristled)
brun- = brown (brunneus)
bry- = referring to moss (bryoides)
bucephalus ox- = headed
bulb- = referring to a bulb (bulbosa / bulbifera = bulb- = bearing)
bullat- = swollen (bullatus)


Plantnames explained C.

caes- = referring to the color blue (caesia)
caespi- = tufted, growing in a clump (cespitosus)
caffr- = referring to a region of S. Africa
cal- = beautiful (calophylla = beautiful leaf)
calabri- = referring to S. Italy (calabricus)
calam- = referring to a reed (calamifolia / calamus)
calath- = referring to a basket (Calathea)
calcarat- = referring to spurs (calcaratus)
calcare- = referring to lime (calcareus)
calceol- = referring to slipper (shape) (calceolatus)
callos- = thick, calloused (callosum)
calyc- = referring to a flower's calyx (calycina)
calypt- = referring to a covering (Euphoria = carried well)
cambr- = referring to Wales
campan- = referring to a bell (Campanula) (campanulatum)
campestr- = referring to fields (campestris)
cana referring to the color white or gray (cana)
canal- = referring to lines, grooves (canaliculatus)
canariensis referring to the Canary Islands - = native to
candi- = hoary, white (candicans / candida)
canescens gray (or white) and somewhat hairy
cantabr- = referring to a part of Spain (cantabrius)
capens- = referring to the Cape of Good Hope (or ANY cape region) (capensis / capense)
capill- = referring to a hair, thread (capillarius / capillare / capilliformis = formed like a hair / capillipes+ = hair- = like foot/stalk)
capit- = referring to the head (usually to the flower cluster) (capitatum)
cappadoc- = referring to a part of Eastern Europe and Western Asia (cappadocicum)
capr- = referring to a goat (capricornis = goat's horn / pes- = caprae = foot + goat / caprea)
capreol- = twining, twisting (Bignonia capreolatus)
caput a head (caput- = medusae = Medusa's head)
card- = referring to a heart (Cardiospermum = heart seed)
- = card(...) =  = referring to a heart (Anacardium, the cashew genus, referring to the heart- = shaped fruit)
caric- = referring to a part of Asia Minor (carica / Ficus carica = the common fig)
carin- = referring to a keel (carinata)
carn- = referring to flesh (usually the color) (carnea incarnata / carnosa)
carolin- = referring to the Carolinas (caroliniensis) OR in honor of the name Charles or Carol)
- = carp(...) =  = referring to a fruit (megacarpus = big fruited / macrocarpon = large fruit)
carpath- = referring to the Carpathian Mts. Region of Europe
cartilag- = referring to cartilege (cartilagineum)
cary- = referring to a nut (Caryota, the fishtail palm genus)
cathart- = cathartic (cathartica)
cathay- = referring to China (cathayensis)
caud- = referring to a tail (caudatus)
caul- = referring to a stem (cauliflorus = bearing flowers on the stem / caulescens)
- = caul(...) =  = referring to a stem, trunk (albicaulis = white- = stemmed)
cep- = referring to a head (Cephalanthus = flowers in a head /
- = cep(...) =  = referring to a head (multiceps = many- = headed)
cer- = referring to wax (cerifera = wax- = bearing; the genus Cereus, because of the wax- = candle body shapes of most of the species / cerefolium = wax- = leaved)
cera- = referring to a horn (ceratiformis = in the form of a horn / platyceras = broad/flat horn)
ceras- = referring to a cherry (cherry- = like) (laurocerasus = specific name of the Cherrylaurel, the genus being Prunus (ancient Latin for the plum))
cerc- = referring to a tail (Cercocarpus = tailed fruit, the Mountain Mahogany genus, in the Rose family, whose fruit (hips) DO have little tails)
cernu- = bending, drooping (cernuus)
ceylan- = referring to Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
chaen- = open, split (Chaenomeles = split fruit)
chaet- = referring to a hair or bristle (chaetophylla = bristle- = like leaves)
chalcedon- = referring to a part of Asia Minor, including Greece and Turkey
chamae- = dwarf, low (Chamaedorea = dwarf gift, a palm genus, refer- = ring to the fact that most species are of short stature and, therefore, their fruit ((the gift)) is found at relatively low heights)
cheil- = / chil- = referring to a lip or margin (Chilopsis = like a lip, referring to the flaring, trumpet- = shaped flowers) (Cheilanthes = lip + flower)
chen- = referring to a goose (Chenopodium = goose + foot)
- = chi(...) =  = referring to snow (Hedychium = sweet snow referring to the fragrant white flowers of this member of the ginger family)
chinensis = referring to China
chit- = referring to a covering, a cloak (Rhodochiton = rosy covering)
- = chlamy(...) =  = referring to clothes (chlamydea = clothed, covered)
chlor- = referring to the color green (chloranthus = green- = flowered)
chrys- = yellow, golden (Chrysanthemum = golden flower) (chrysocoma = golden hair)
- = cid(...) =  = referring to the act (or art) of killing (Piscidea = fish + kill, the Fish Poison Tree)
cili- = ciliate, hairy (ciliatus)
cinct- = girded, girdled (cinctus)
ciner- = referring to ashes (ash- = colored) (Cineraria refers to the ash- = colored leaves)
cinnabar- = referring to cinnabar, a reddish mineral (cinnabarinus)
circin- = coiled (circinnatus)
cirrh- = referring to a thread, a tendril (Cirrhopetalum, an orchid, = tendril- = like petals)
ciss- = referring to an ivy (Cissus)
citr- = referring to citrus (citrifolia = leaves having a citrus- = like odor / citrinum)
clad- = referring to a branch (Cladanthus = branch + flower)
clav- = referring to a club (clavatus)
cleist- = / cleis- = closed (Cleisostoma = closed mouth, referring to the flower shape / Cleistocactus = closed + cactus)
clin- = inclined (Clinostigma = inclined stigma)
clyt- = beautiful, marvelous (Clytostoma = beautiful mouth, re- = ferring to the flaring, trumpet- = shaped flowers of this genus)
cocc- = referring to a seed or berry (coccifera = bearing berries / Chiococca = snow berry)
coccin- = red (coccineus)
cochl- = referring to a spoon, a spade (Cochlearia, referring to leaf shape) (cochlearis)
cochli- = referring to a spiral (Cochliostema = spiral stamens)
coco- = referring to a monkey (fr. Portuguese) (Cocos nucifera = the coconut palm, whose nut (fruit) with its three eyes looks to some like a monkey's face - = nucifera = nut- = bearing)
-codon referring to a bell (Platycodon = broad bell- = shaped)
caerul- = bluish (cerulea as in Passiflora caerulea, the mostly blue- = flowered Passion Vine / caerulescens / caeruleus)
caes- = referring to the color blue- = gray (caesium)
caespitos- = tufted, clumped (caespitosus)
coel- = hollow (Coelogyne = hollow female part)
coelest- = referring to the sky, blue (coelestina)
collin- = referring to a hill (habitat) (collinus)
columb- = referring to a dove (columbaria)
com- = - = com(...) =  = referring to a hair (Acrocomia = top + hair, referring to the palms viewed from a distance) (comosus)
commun- = common (communis)
commut- = referring to change, changeable (commutatus)
con- = with (having) (concolor)
confert- = crowded (confertifolia = crowded leaves)
coni- = referring to a cone (coniferus)
conjug- = joined together (conjugatus)
conoid- = cone- = like (conoideus)
contort- = twisted, contorted (contortus)
coral- = coral, red (corallinus)
cord- = referring to a heart (cordifolia = heart- = shaped leaf)
core- = referring to an insect (Coreopsis = like a bug)
cori- = referring to leather (coriaceus)
corn- = referring to a horn (tereticornis = cylindrical- = horned / cornuta)
coron- = referring to a crown (coronata coronaria)
cors- = referring to Corsica (corsicus)
cort- = referring to bark (corticosa / excorticata = off + bark, referring to exfoliating bark)
corusc- = referring to vibration, shaking
corymb- = referring to a corymb, a broad, + or - = flat- = topped flower cluster (corymbosus)
coryn- = referring to a club (shape) (corynocalyx = club- = shaped calyx)
coryph- = referring to the top (apex) of an entity (Corypha, a palm genus whose immense members produce flowers only once, in a huge panicle at the very tip of the trunk, and then the tree dies)
corys- = referring to a helmet (Corysanthus)
cost- = referring to ribs (costatus)
cotyl- = referring to a cup (Cotyledon, a genus of succulents whose leaves are, in general, concave)
- cotyl(...) = referring to a cup
crass- = thick (Crassulaceae, a whole family of succulent (thick- = stemmed) plants, which includes the genus Crassula) (crassifolia = thick- = leaved)
cren- = scalloped, crenulate (crenulatum)
crepid- = referring to a sandal (crepidatum)
crepit- = referring to rattles (crepitans)
crepusc- = referring to twilight (crepuscularia)
cret- = referring to chalk or the island of Crete
crinit- = hairy (crinitum)
crisp- = curled, crinkled (crispus)
crist- = referring to a crest (cristata crista- = galli = crest of a cock / cock's comb)
croc- = referring to the crocus (yellow) (crocata / crocea /)
crotal- = referring to rattles (Crotalaria, a papilionaceus genus whose dry seed pods are like castanets)
cruc- = referring to a cross (Cruciferae, a genus of plants, includ- = many veggies, the petals of whose flowers are so evenly distributed as to form a cross)
cruent- = referring to blood (cruenta)
crypt- = hidden, not obvious (cryptanthus = hidden flower)
cucul- = referring to a hood (cucullatus)
cultr- = referring to a knife (shape) (cultratus / cultratus)
cune- = referring to a wedge (shaped) (cuneiformis)
cupr- = referring to copper (color) (cuprea)
cupress- = referring to a cypress (cupressoides- = like)
cuspid- = referring to a cusp or point (cuspidata)
cyan- = referring to the color blue (cyaneus)
cyath- = referring to a cup (cyathiforme = cup- = shaped / cyathiphorum = cup- = bearing)
cycl- = referring to a circle (Cyclanthera = circle of anthers)
cycn- = / cygn- = / cyn- = referring to a swan (cygniformis / Polycynis = many swans, referring to the flowers of this genus of orchids)
cyl- = referring to a cylinder (cylindriata)
cym- = referring to a cyme (a broad, flat- = topped flower cluster) (cymosa)
cymb- = referring to a boat (shape) (cymbiformis)
cyn- = referring to a dog (Cynoglossum = dog's tongue)
cypho- = referring to a hump, a tumor, a wart
cypr- = referring to copper (cypreus) - = or a slipper (Cypr- = ipedium, the Lady- = Slipper genus of orchids)
cyrt- = referring to a curve (Cyrtostachys = a curved spike (of flowers))
cyst- = referring to a cyst or bladder (Cystacanthus = bladder + thorn)

Plantnames explained D.

dactyl- = referring to a finger (Phoenix dactylifera, the date palm, = finger-bearing, referring to shape of the fruit cluster)
daemon- = referring to a spirit, a demon (Daemonorops = demon shrub, a palm with spines)
dasy- = thick (Dasystachys = thick spike (of flowers))
de- = from, out of, off (decorticans = off + skin, therefore, peeling bark)
dealb- = whitish (dealbata)
debil- = weak (debiliformis = weak form)
deca- = referring to the number ten (decapetalus = ten-petalled)
decip- = drooping, deceptive, falling (decipiens)
declin- = declined, drooping (declinatus)
decor- = decorative (decora)
decumb- = reclining, prostrate, decumbent (decumbens)
decur- = literally 'running downwards,' usually meaning that the leaf 'runs down,' i.e., is joined to the stem of the plant (decurrens)
deflex- = bent downwards (deflexus)
delph- = referring to the dolphin (Delphinium, whose flowers supposedly resemble dolphins)
delect- = chosen, desirable, tasty (delectus)
deltoid- = triangular (deltoidea)
dendr- = referring to a tree (Dendrocalamus = tree + reed, the great giant tropical bamboo genus)
dent- = referring to a tooth (dentata)
denud- = naked (denudatus)
depend- = hanging (dependens)
-derm(...) = referring to skin, theredore bark (leucodermis = white- bark)
desm- = referring to a bond, or band (Desmoncus = band + hook, referring to the barbed leaves of this genus)
di- = referring to the number two (diacanthus = two-spined / dioica = two houses, indicating that the flowers are of separate sexes and found on different plants) (dipterocarpus = two + wing + fruit)
dichot- = two-branched (dichotomus)
dicty- = referring to a net (Dictyogramma = net-like + lines)
didy- = double, twinned (Didymocarpus = twin fruit) (didyma)
digit- = referring to fingers (Digitalis, the shape of the flowers supposedly resembling the finger of a glove) (digitata)
dilat- = spread out, expanded (dilatatus)
dios- = referring to a god or divinity (Diospyros = god + fruit, the persimmon)
dipl- = double (Diplothemium = double-sheathed)
dis- = referring to the number two or to a difference (discolor = (two-colored)
distich- = referring to two ranks (as in the arrangement of leaves); (distichum)
diurn- = referring to daytime (diurnum)
divari- = divergent, spreading (divaricatus)
divergens- = divergent, wide-spreading
divers- = variable (diversiflora = variable-flowered)
divi- = divided (divisus)
dodec- = twelve (dodecanthus = twelve-spined)
domestic- = domestic, cultivated (domestica)
-dont(...) = referring to a tooth (macrodonta = large-toothed)
-dor(...) = referring to a gift (Haemodorum = blood gift)
dory- = referring to a spear, lance (Doryanthes = lance-flower)
drac- = referring to a dragon (Dracaena draco = the dragon tree of the Canary Islands)
dros- = referring to dew (Drosera, the sundew genus)
drup- = referring to a berry-like fruit (drupifera = fruit -bearing / drupacea)
dry- = referring to an oak, wooden (Dryopteris, the wood-fern genus)
dub- = doubtful, dubious (dubius)
dulc- = sweet, tender (dulcis)
dumos- = bushy (dumosus)
dupl- = double (duplicatus)
dur- = durable hard, woody (durabilis)

Plantnames explained E.

e- = without, (emarginatus = without a margin) ALSO out of, out from (erumpens = breaking out of)
eben- = referring to ivory (ebenaceus)
echin- = referring to a bristle, prickle, spine (hedgehog) (Echino- cereus, a cactus genus)
edul- = edible (edulis)
elae- = referring to the olive (elaeiformis = shpaed like an olive)
elat- = tall (elata)
eleg- = referring to elegance (elegantissima)
elepha- = referring to an elephant (Phytelephas = Elephant Plant, a palm genus noted for the hard, white endosperm of the seeds, which can be worked like ivory)
ens- = referring to a sword (ensiformis = formed like a sword / ensifolia = sword + leaf / ensata)
-ense = native to (canariense = native to the Canary Islands)
-ensis = native to (canadensis)
entom- = referring to insects (entomophilus = insect-loving)
epi- = upon (Epigaea = on the ground)
equ- = referring to horses (equinus)
aequator- = referring to equatorial regions (aequatorialis)
equin- / equis- = referring to horses (Equisetum, the horsetail genus) (equisetifolia)
erem- = solitary, deserted (therefore usually refers to a desert) (Eremurus = desert + tail)
eri- / erio- = referring to wool (eriospatha = hairy spathe / eriocarpa = wooly fruit)
erica- = referring to the genus Erica, the Heath (ericoides)
erina- = referring to spines, a hedgehog (Erinacea)
eros- = jagged (erosus)
erubescens = retiring, blushing - usually referring to color - literally, emitting rose-color
erythr- = red (Erythrina, the tropical coral-tree)
escul- = edible (esculentum)
eu- = well, good, normal, complete (Eucalyptus, well and calypt (kalypt, calypt = covered, referring to the seed capsules) (eumorpha = well-formed)
ex- = out of, from (Exorrhiza = from the root)
exalt- = very high, tall, lofty (exaltata)
excel- = exalted, lofty, high, tall (excelsus / excelsior)
exci- = cut (excisus)
exigu- = small, lowly (exiguus)
exim- = distinguished (eximia)


Plantnames explained F.

faba- = referring to a bean (fabaceus)
falc- = referring to a sickle (shaped) (falcatus)
farin- = referring to starch or wheat (farinacea / farinosa)
fasciat- = flat (fasciatus)
fascicul- = clustered (fasciculatus)
febri- = referring to fever (febrifugus = fever + flight, driving away fever)
fenestr- = referring to a window (fenestralis)
-fer(...) = bearing, producing (coccifera = bearing berries; resiniferous; nucifera = nut-bearing; indigofera = indigo-bearing)
fero- = ferocious (Ferocactus = ferociously-spined cactus) (ferox is the Lat. adjective)
ferr- = referring to iron, rusty (color) (ferruginea)
fert- = referring to fruit, fruitful (fertilis)
festuc- = referring to the genus Festuca, a grass, therefore grass- like (festucoides)
fic- = referring to the genus Ficus (ficifolia = figleaf) (ficus-indica = fig of India) (ficaria / ficoides = like a fig)
-fid(...) = parted, divided (multifida = many-parted; bipinnatifida = twice/doubly-pinnately cut/divided)
fili- = referring to a thread (filifera = thread-bearing / filipes = hair + stalk/foot/ filipendulum = thread + drooping)
filic- = referring to ferns (filicifolia = fern-like leaves); the noun is filix = fern (filix-femina = fern +
woman, the lady-fern)
fimbr- = referring to a fringe (fimbriatus)
fissi- = split (fissifolia)
fistul- = hollow tubelike (fistularis / fistulosa)
flabell- = fan-like (flabelliformis = formed like a fan)
flaccid- = soft (flaccida)
flagell- = referring to a whip (flagelliforma)
flamm- = referring to a flame (color) (flammeus)
flav- = referring to yellow (flavescens / flavum / flavida)
flex- = pliable, crooked, bent (flexuosus = bent)
floc- = referring to wool (floccosus)
flor- = a flower (floribunda = abundantly-flowering)
flui- = floating (fluidans)
fluv- = referring to a river (fluvialis)
foetid- fetid- = stinking (foetida)
foli- = referring to leaves (foliosa)
-foli(...) = referring to leaves (latifolia = flat-leaved)
foll- = referring to follicles (follicularis)
-form(...) = in the form of .... (fusiforma = spindle-shaped)
formos- = beautiful (formosa / formosissima = most beautiful) NB: formosana usually refers to Formosa (Taiwan))
formosan- = referring to Formosa (Taiwan) (formosanum)
-frag(...) = referring to a break or rupture (rupifragum = rock- breaker)
frax- = referring to the ash tree (fraxifolia = ash-foliaged / fraxinifolia)
frond- = referring to a leaf (frondosa)
-frons = referring to a leaf (frond) (simplicifrons)
frigid- = referring to cold regions (frigida)
fruct- = referring to fruit (esp. the grape) (fructifera = fruit- bearing)
frut- = referring to a shrub (shrubby) (fruticosa / fruticans = shrubby)
fuc- = painted (fucatus) - ALSO referring to a red alga plant in shape (fucoidea)
fulg- = shining, excessive (fulgens)
fulgin- = black, dark in color (fulginosa)
fulv- = referring to the color yellow (orange) (fulvescens, fulvida / fulvus)
furc- = forked. cleft (furcatus)
fusc- = brown, reddish-brown (fuscus)
fusi- = referring to a spindle (fusiformis)

Plantnames explained G.

-gae(...) =  referring to the earth, ground (hypogaea = underground)
-gal(...) = referring to milk (Polygala = many milks, referring to a myth that the plants increase the flow of mother's milk)
gall- = referring to Gaul (France), Gallic (gallicus) ALSO referring to a cock (rooster) (crus-galli =
gam- = united (married) (gamopetala = joined petals) (polygama = many married, meaning, in a botanical sense, that the flowers are of both sexes on a single plant)
gast- = referring to a stomach, a belly, swollen (Gasteria, a a genus of succulents, the appearance pf which is somewhat a swollen stem)
gemin- = referring to twins (geminiflora)
gemm- = referring to jewels or buds (gemmiflorus)
geo- = referring to the earth, the ground (geoides)
-ger(...) = bearing (cornigera = with a horn)
gibb- = swollen on one side (the gibbous moon) (gibbosa)
gig- = referring to giants or immensity (gigantea)
glabr- = smooth (glabrescens)
glad- = referring to a sword (Gladiolus, because of the leaves)
gland- = referring to a gland (glandulifera = gland-bearing)
glauc- = milky, with a bloom, greyish (glaucescens / glaucinus)
glob- = referring to a ball or sphere (globulus)
glom- = referring to a cluster (glomerata)
glor- = glorious (gloriosa)
gloss- = referring to a tongue (shape) (Ophioglossum = snake's tongue - a fern)
glut- = referring to glue (glutinosa)
glyc- = sweet (in taste) (Glycyrrhiza, the licorice plant, = sweet root)
-gon(...) = referring to an angle (Polygonum = many-angled/jointed) (chrysogonum = golden angle (star))
goni- = referring to an angle (Goniopterus = angle-winged)
gongyl- = rounded, swollen (gongyloides)
gossyp- = referring to the genus Gossypium, the cotton plant (gossypifolium = cotton plant + leaf)
gracil- = graceful, slender (gracilis / gracilipes = slender + foot / stalk)
graec- = pertaining to Greece (Greek) (graeca)
gramin- = referring to grass (graminifolia = grass-like leaves)
gramm- = referring to a line / written upon (Grammatophyllum = written-on (lined) leaves)
grand- = large (grandiceps = large-headed)
granul- = granular, grainy (granulosus)
-graph(...) = referring to writing (xerographica = dried writing)
grat- = wonderful, pleasing, likeable (gratus gratissima)
graveol- = heavy (often referring to odor) (graveolens)
gris- = referring to the color gray (griseus)
gumm- = referring to gum (gummifera = gum-bearing)
gutt- = referring to a spot or a drop (the genus Guttifera whose leaves exude water)) (guttatus = spotted)
gymn- = naked, bare (gymnocladus = bare-branched)
gyn- = referring to the female sex (Gynura tailed woman - just wanted to see if you were awake! -- a stigma with a tail) (monogyna = single female sexual part, a single pistil)
gyr- = revolving, gyrating (gyrans)


Plantnames explained H.

haema- = referring to blood (Haemanthus = blood flower) (haematodes)
hal- = referring to salt (halodendron = salt + tree)
ham- = referring to a hook (hamosus)
haplo- = referring to the number one (haplophylla = one-leaved)
harp- = referring to a sickle (shape) (harpophyllus = sickle-shaped leaf)
hast- = referring to a spear (hastatum)
hebe- = pubescent (hebecarpus = hairy-fruited)
hedy- = sweet, fragrant (Hedycarya = sweet nut)
heli- = referring to the sun (Helianthus = sun flower)
helic- = referring to a spiral, a coil (helicoides)
helvetic- = referring to Switzerland (helvetica)
hemero- = referring to a day (Hemerocallis = beautiful for a day)
hemi- = half (hemisphaericus = half a sphere)
hepat- = referring to the liver (shape) (hepaticus)
hepta- = referring to the number seven (heptaphyllum = seven- leaved)
herb- = not woody (herbaceous) (herbacea)
hesper- = referring to the evening or the west (Hesperaloe = Western Aloe)
heter- = variable, different, not-alike (Heteranthera = having unlike anthers in the flowers)
hexa- = referring to the number six (hexagonus = six-angled)
hibern- = referring to winter (hibernalis) OR Ireland (hibernicus)
hipp- = referring to a horse (Hippocrepis = horse-shoe)
hirss- / hirt- = referring to hair (hirtellus = somewhat hairy) / (hirsutum)
hispid- = referring to bristles (hispidula)
hort- = referring to a garden (cultivated) (hortensis / hortulanum)
humil- = low, dwarf (humilis / humile)
hyal- = transparent, translucent (hyalina)
hyem- / hiem- = referring to winter (hyemalis)
hydr- = referring to water (Hydrocotyle = water cup)
hyl- = referring to wood (Hylocereus, a climbing, night- blooming cactus with eventual woody stems)
hymen- = referring to a membrane (Hymenocallis = beautiful membrane, referring to the membrane which connects the base of the anthers in this genus of the spider lily)
hyo- = referring to a hog/swine (Hyophorbe = swine food)
hyper- = above, far, extreme (hyperborealis = of the far north)
hypo- = under, beneath (hypophyllus = under the leaf / hypoleuca = white beneath)
hystr- = bristly (hystrix)

Plantnames explained I.

iber- = referring to Spain (Iberis)
-ifoli(...) = this part is used very much in combination with parts of generic names (as a prefix) to mean leaves like [x] where [x] is the generic word-part prefix (aconitifolium = leaves like Aconitum) (ulmifolia = leaves like Ulmus, the elm)
ign- = referring to fire (color) (igneus)
ilic- = referring to the holly tree (plant) (illicifolia = holly-leaved)
illic- = referring to fragrance/seduction (Illicium)
illustr- = bright, notable (illustris)
illyr- = referring to Greece (illyrica)
imbricat- = shingled, overlapping (imbricatus)
immacul- = spotless, immaculate (immaculata)
imper- = regal, imperious (imperator / imperialis)
impres- = sunken (impressum)
in- = un..., not .... without (inermis = unarmed / inapertum = not + open, therefore closed)
inaequal- = unequal (inaequalifolius = unequal leaves)
incan- = hairy, hoary (incana)
incarn- = referring to flesh (colored) (incarnatus)
incis- = cut (incisus)
incurv- = bent inward (incurvatus)
indent- = indented (indentata)
ind- = Indian (the subcontinent) (indica)
-ind(...) = referring to India (Morinda = mulberry + India)
indivis- = undivided (indivisus)
inerm- = unarmed (inermis)
infector- = referring to dyes and the process of dyeing (infectoria)
infest- = unsafe (infesta)
inflat- = swollen (inflatus)
ingens = massive, tremendous (size)
insign- = remarkable, distinguished (insignis / insigne)
integ- = entire (integrifolia = entire (margin)-leaved / integerrimus = very complete, entire)
intors- = turned inwards (intorsus)
involucr- = referring to an involucre (involucrata)
ion- = referring to a violet or the color (Ionopsis = violet-like - an orchid)
irid- = referring to the genus Iris, Gr. for rainbow (iridiflorus = iris-flowered)
isa- / iso- = equal, like (Isochilus = equal lips - an orchid) (isophylla = equal (sized) leaves)
-issim(...) = most, very (viridissima = very green / altissima = VERY tall)
ital- = referring to Italy (italica)

Plantnames explained J.

japon- = referring to Japan (japonica)
java- = referring to Java (javanicus)
juba- = crested (jubatus)
junc- = referring to a reed, Juncus (juncifolia = Juncus-leaved)

Plantnames explained K.

kalmiiflorus = with flowers like Kalmia (kalmiiflorus)
kamtschaticus = from Kamchatka (Sedum kamtschaticum)

Plantnames explained L.

labi- = referring to a lip (labiata)
lachry- = referring to a tear (like in drop) (lachrymosa)
lacin- = torn, cut, incised (laciniatus)
lact- = referring to milk (lactiflorus = milk-colored flowers)
lacun- = referring to a hole or pit (lacunosa)
lacustr- = referring to a lake (lacustris)
laet- = bright (laetum)
laevi- = smooth (laevigatus / laevis /laeve)
lagen- = referring to a bottle (Lagenaria, a gourd genus)
lan- = referring to wool (lanata, lanosus)
lanc- = referring to a lance (lanceolatus)
lanig- = referring to wool (lanigerus = wool-bearing)
lanug- = referring to wool or down (lanuginosus)
larici- = referring to the genus Larix, the Larch tree (laricifolia = leaves like a larch)
lasi- = rough, hairy (lasiocarpus = rough fruit)
later- = lateral, referring to a side (lateriflora = flowers on the side)
laterit- = referring to a brick (color) (lateritium)
lati- = broad, wide - horizontally (latifolia = wide-leaved)
lauri- = referring to the Laurel tree (laurifolius = leaves like the laurel)
lavand- = referring to the genus Lavandula, the Lavender plant which name, itself, comes from the Latin word to wash, the plant having been used since ancient times in the bath water (lavandulacea)
lax- = loose, open (laxifolia = loosely/sparsely-leaved) (laxa)
leia- / leio- = smooth (leiocarpus = smooth fruit)
lenti- = referring to a lens (lentiformis = in the form of a lens)
leon- = referring to a lion (Leontopodium, the Edelweiss, = lion's foot)
lep- = referring to scales (Lepidium = little scale)
-lep(...) = referring to a scale (Microlepia = small scale - a fern)
lepr- = scurfy (leprosepala = scurfy petalled)
lept- = thin, slender (Leptocodon = slender bell)
leuc- = referring to the color white (Leucadendron = silver tree) (leuconeura = white-nerved)
lign- = referring to wood (lignosa)
ligul- = referring to a strap (shape)
limn- / lim- = referring to mud or marshes (Limodorum = marsh gift)
line- = linear (linearis) ALSO meaning lined (lineatus)
ling- = referring to a tongue (lingua / lingularia)
liri- = referring to a lily (Liriodendron = lily + tree)
-liri(...) = referring to a lily (Dasylirion, thick lily)
litho- = referring to a stone (Lithospermum = stone seed)
littor- = referring to a shore (sea) (littoralis)
lob- = referring to lobes - as a suffix it usually refers to a fruit
loma- = referring to a margin (Lomatophyllum = margined leaf)
lonch- = referring to a lance (Lonchocarpus = lance-fruit)
longi- = long (longipes = long foot)
loph- = referring to a crest (Lophophora (the Peyote) = crest-bearing)
lor- = referring to a strap (Loranthus = strap-flower)
lori- = referring to a strap (lorifolius = strap-leaved)
lucid- = referring to light; bright, clear, lustrous (lucida)
ludovic- = referring to King Louis [x], therefore, by extension, to the State of Louisiana (ludoviciana)
luna- = referring to the moon (usually in crescent shape) (Lunaria, referring to the moon-shaped seed pods / lunatus = crescent-shaped)
lurid- = pale, sallow (luridus)
lusitan- = referring to Portugal (lusitanica)
lute- = referring to the color yellow (esp. light yellow) (lutescens / lutea)
lyc- = referring to a wolf (Lycopersicum ((Lycopersicon)) = wolf-peach - the tomato; the derivation is probably due to the fact that the fruit was once considered poisonous)
lyr- = referring to a lyre (shape) (lyrata)

Plantnames explained M.

macr- = large (macranthus = large-flowered)
macul- = referring to a spot (maculatus)
magellan- = referring to the area of the Straits of Maggellan (magellanica)
magn- = big, magnificent (magnificus / magnimama = big mama, actually mammary glands, the protuberances on a species of Mammillaria)
maj- = major, larger (major / majus)
majal- = referring to the month of May (flowering) (majalis)
malabar- = referring to an area of India (malabaricum)
malac- = soft (Malacocarpus = soft-fruited) (malacodendron = soft + tree)
malv- = referring to the genus Malva, the Mallow (malvacea)
mamm- = referring to breasts or nipples (mammifera = breast- bearing breasts or nipples)(Mammillaria, a great genus of cactus, because all the bodies of the plants bear many nipple-like protuberances)
manic- = referring to a covering of dense hairs, a sleeve (manicata)
margin- = referring to a margin (marginalis)
mariland- = referring to Maryland (marilandica)
marin- = referring to the sea marinum)
marit- = referring to the seashore (maritima)
marm- = marbled, marbled (marmoratus / marmoreum)
mas = male - usually referring to robustness of the plant, rather than sex of the flowers -- sexist!
maurit- = referring to North Africa (mauritania)
maxim- = largest (maxima)
maxil- = referring to a jaw (maxillaris
medul- = referring to marrow, the center, the pith (medullaris)
mega- = large (megacarpa = large-fruited / megalanthus = large-flowered)
mela- = black (Melaleuca = black (trunk) + white (branches))
mel- / mell- = referring to honey (melliodora = honey-scented) (Melianthus = honey flower)
meles = referring to an apple, or any fruit (Chaenomeles = split + fruit)
melo- = referring to a melon (meloformis = melon shaped)
men- = referring to a month and, by extension, the moon (Menispermum = moon seed)
menisc- = referring to a crescent (meniscifolius = crescent- shaped foliage)
-mer(...) = referring to parts (trimera = three parts)
merid- = referring to noon (meridionalis = mid-day bloomer)
mes- = mixed, middle (Mesembryanthemum = mid-day flower)
metr- = referring to the center (heart) of an entity (Metroxylon = heartwood)
mica- = referring to mica, glittering (micans)
mic- = referring to mica or glitter (micans)
mille- = referring to the number 1000 or a very large number (millefolius = very many leaves)
mim- = referring to a mime (Mimosa, because of the closing up of the leaflets in many species - also Mimulus, because the flowers are supposedly similar to grinning faces - by extension, a monkey or an ape: Mimusops = like a monkey)
minax = forbidding, threatening (like thorns)
miniat- = of a reddish color (miniata)
minim- = very small (minimus)
minor / minus smaller
minut- = very small (minutus)
mirab- = wonderful (Mirabilis, the Four-O'Clock genus)
misc- = referring to a stem (Miscanthus = stem flower)
mitis = mild, gentle, unarmed
mitr- = referring to a turban, mitre (mitrocarpus = mitre-shaped fruit)
modest- = modest, unaffected, usually means unadorned (modesta)
moldav- = referring to Rumania (moldavicus)
moll- = soft (hairy) (mollis / mollissima / molle)
molucc- = referring to the East Indies
mon- = referring to the number one (Monanthes = single-flowered) (monophylla = one leaf)
monil- = referring to necklace (monilifera = necklace-bearing)
monst- = monstrous, abnormal (Monstera, because of the unusual, cut leaves)
mont- = referring to a mountain (montanus)
monti- = referring to mts. (monticolus)
mor- = referring to the genus Morus, the mulberry
-mord(...) = to bite (Momordica, referring to the appearance of the seeds)
-morph(...) =  referring to form (polymorpha = many forms / callimorphum = beautifully-formed)
mosch- = referring to musk (odor) (Moschosma = musk-like odor / moschata)
mucron- = referring to a point (usually in shape of leaf) (mucronatus)
multi- = many (multiflora = many-flowered / multicaulis = many-trunked)
munit- = referring to defense (with thorns, prickles, etc.) (munitus)
mura- = referring to a wall (muralis)
muric- = rough, knobby (muricata)
mus- / myos- = referring to a mouse (Myosotis = mouse ear - the Forget -Me-Not genus, in reference to the mousy leaves
musc- = referring to musk (Muscari, because of the musky odor of the flowers of M. moschatum)ALSO referring to a fly (muscivorus = fly-eating)
mutab- = referring to change, variability (mutabilis)
mutic- = blunt (mutica)
myr- = referring to myrrh (Myristica, the nutmeg genus, because of the odor)
myri- = numberless, too many to count, myriad (Myriocephalus = with a myriad of heads)
myrmec- = referring to ants (myrmecophilus = beloved of ants)
myrt- = referring to the myrtle genus, Myrtus (Myrtillocactus = myrtle-berried cactus) myrtifolia = myrtle-leaved) napus = raap
nigra, nigrum = zwart

oblonga = langwerpige vorm
occidentalis = uit het Westen
occidentalis = westers
odorata = Welriekend
officinalis = Geneeskrachtig
officinalis =geneeskrachtig
oïdes ides = gelijkend op (v.e. geslachtsnaam afgeleid)
orientale, orientalis = oosters
orientalis = uit het Oosten
ovalifolium = ovaalbladig

paniculata = pluimvormig
patula = openstaand
peltatum = schildvormig
pendula =  hangend
pepo = pompoenachtig
perennis =  overblijvend
persicum, persica =  afk. uit Perzië
porrum = van het Keltische pori; een eetbaar look
praecox = vroegbloeiend

rapa, (rapaceúm) = raap, (raapvormig)
reginae = van de koningin
rex = koning
rhaponticum, -a,-um = van gr. Rha: Wolga en pon-tos: zee (uit het land v. Wolga en Zwarte Zee)
robur = kracht
rotundifolia = rondbladig
rubra = rood

sabauda Savoois, = uit Savoje.
saccharinum = Gesuikerd
sanguineum=  bloed, bloedrood
sativus, sativa = Geteeld
schoenoprasum van gr.: schoinos: =  bies en prason: look
semperflorens = altijd bloeiend
sempervirens = altijd groen
serrulata = fijngezaagd
spicata, spicatum = arendragend
spinosus,-a,-um = met dorens
splendens = schitterend
sylvatica, sylvestris,(silvatica)=  bosbewonend
sylvestris = uit de bossen

tricolor = driekleurig
trifasciata = met drie banden
triloba = drielobbig

uva = druif

variegatum = bont
vinifera = voor het wijnmaken gebruikt
vulgaris, vulgare = algemeen

x josta = Duits: kruising van Schwarze Johannisbeer en stachelbeer (zwartebes x kruisbes)

zonale = met een gordel nan- = dwarf (Nannorhops = dwarf bush) (nanus)


nat- = floating, swimming (natans)
nav- = referring to a ship (navicularis)
nem- = referring to a thread (Nemastylis = thread-like styles (of the flower)
nemor- = referring to the woods (nemoralis / nemorum)
neo- = new (Agave neo-mexicana)
nepalens- = referring to Nepal (nepalensis / nepalense)
nephr- = referring to a kidney (shape) (Nephrolepis = kidney- shaped scale - the spore cases of this genus of ferns)
neri- = referring to the genus Nerium, the oleander (neriifolia = oleander-shaped leaf)
nervos- = referring to a nerve (nervosus)
neva- = referring to mts., Nevada, Sierra Nevada (nevadensis)
nicit- = blinking, moving (nicitans)
nid- = referring to a nest (nidus / nidularia)
nigr- = referring to the color black (nigrescens nigricans)
nilo- = referring to the river Nile
niph- = referring to snow (niphophilus = snow-loving)
nit- = shining (nitens / nitida)
niv- = referring to snow or the color white (nivea / nivalis)
nobil- = noble, renowned (nobilissimus = most noble / nobile)
noct- = referring to the night (nocturnum)
nod- = referring to a node (nodosus)
noli- = the negative imperative (noli-tangere = touch-me-not)
not- = marked, notable (notabilis)
notho- = false (Nothofagus = false Beech tree)
nov- = new (novae-zelandica = New Zealand)
nub- = referring to a cloud (nubicola)
nuc- = referring to a nut (as in Rifflea nucoides var. obesiformis)
nud- = naked (nudicaulis = naked stem)
num- = referring to coins (shape) (numismatus / nummularium)
nutans = nodding
nyct- = referring to the night (Nyctanthes = night flower)


Plantnames explained O.

ob- = reverse, inverse, upside down, etc. (obovatus)
obes- = fat (obesus)
obfusc- = cloudy, confused (obfuscatus)
obliq- = oblique, slanting (obliqua)
oblong- = oblong (surprise!) (oblongifolia = oblong leaves)
occi- = western (occidentalis)
ochr- = yellowish (Ochrocarpos = yellow fruit)
oct- = referring to the number eight (Octomeria = eight parts - an orchid)
ocul- = referring to an eye (oculiforma = in the shape of an eye / oculatum)
odont- = referring to a tooth (Odontoglossum = toothed tongue)
-odon(...) = referring to a tooth (Leontodon = lion's tooth)
oen- = referring to a vine, esp. the grape vine; therefore, by ex- tension, WINE (Oenothera, the evening primrose, = wine-scented)
offic- = official, recognized (usually from medicine or commerce) (officinalis)
-oide(...) = like unto (botryoides = cluster-like / malacoides = mallow-like / dendroideum = tree-like))
ole- = referring to oil (olive) (oleifera = oil-bearing)
oler- = referring to a vegetable, edible (oleracea)
olig- = few (oligocarpa = few-fruited)
oliv- = referring to an olive (olivifolia = leaves like an olive)
omni- = all (kinds)
onc- = referring to a barb, a protruberance, a tubercle (Oncidium)
ono- = referring to a donkey (Onosma = donkey + smell - which donkeys supposedly favor) !
opac- = shaded (opacus)
operc- = referring to a lid (operculatus)
ophio- = referring to a snake (Ophiopogon = snake's beard) !
-opsis = like unto (Chilopsis, lip-like) (phalaenopsis = like a moth)
orbic- = round (orbicularis)
orch- = referring to an orchid (or the sexual parts of a flower) - actually, the Gr. word, orchis refers to the male gonads (orchioides = like an orchid)
oreo- / oro- = referring to mountains (Oreocereus = mountain cactus / oreophilus = mountain-loving)
orient- = referring to the Orient, eastern (orientalis)
ornat- = showy, adorned, ornate (ornatus)
ornith- = referring to a bird (Ornithocephalus = bird's head) (ornithorhyncum = bird + snout/beak)
orth- = straight, correct (Orthocarpus = straight fruit)
osm- = referring to an odor (Osmanthus = fragrant flower)
-osm(...) = referring to an odor (Coprosma = feces + odor)
ost- = referring to a bone, therefore hardness (Osteospermum = bone seed)
-ot(...) = referring to an ear (Leonotis = lion's ear)
oval- = oval (ovalis)
ovat- = ovately shaped (ovata)
ovi- = referring to an egg (shape) (ovifera = egg-bearing)
ox- / oxy- = sharp, pointed, sour (Oxalis, referring to the oxalic acid in the leaves and roots) (oxycarpa = sharp, pointed fruit)


Plantnames explained P.

pachy- = thick (Pachyrhizus = thick root / pachyphyllum = thick-leaved / Pachypodium = thick + foot)
palle- / palli- pale
(pallidus / pallidiflora = pale flower) (pallescens)
palm- = referring to a hand, a palm (usually leaf-shape) (palmata)
palustr- = referring to a swamp, marsh (palustris)
-panax = referring to a plant in the Aralia family, usually the genus Panax, which includes the Ginseng plant; panax comes from two Gr. words which mean all- afflictions, and the sense was (at least for Karl Linnaeus) hat ginseng heals these diseases; (Oreopanax = mountain panax)
pandur- = referring to a fiddle (shape) (pandurata / panduriforme = fiddle-form / pandurifolia = fiddle-shaped leaves)
panicul- = referring to a panicle (paniculatus)
pannos- = ragged, hairy (pannosa)
papaver- = referring to the poppy (papaveracea)
papyr- = referring to paper (Papyrus) (papyrifera paper-bearing)
papil- = referring to a butterfly (papilionaceus = like the pea-family whose individual flowers are somewhat similar in form to a butterfly)
papill- = referring to nipples (papillosus)
paradis- = referring to gardens, paradise, parks (paradisiaca)
paradox- = unusual, strange, anomalous (paradoxus)
pard- = referring to a leopard (spotted) (pardalinus)
part- = referring to parts or a part (partitus)
parthen- = referring to a virgin, i.e., asexual reproduction (Parthenocissus = virgin's vine)
parv- = small (parviflora = small-flowered)
patagon- = referring to Argentina (patagoniensis)
patell- = referring to a disk (patellaris)
patens = spreading
patul- = spreading (patulus)
pauci- = few (pauciflora = few-flowered)
pavon- = referring to a peacock (pavonicus)
pectin- = referring to a comb, having teeth, finely-divided (pectinifera = comb-bearing) (pectinatus)
pector- = referring to the breastbone (shape) (pectoralis)
ped- = referring to a foot (shape), or, by extension, a basal structure (pedicillatus = having a stalk) often also mean palmate, which word, itself, refers not to a foot but to a hand, as in a palmate leaf; (Pedilanthus = foot (shoe) flower), one common name is Slipper Spurge (spurge is a general common name applied to many plants in the Euphorbia Family) (pedatum)
pedunc- = referring to a peduncle (pedunculatus)
pelluc- = pellucid, having translucent dots/spots (pellucidus)
pelt- = peltate, stalk attached to the center, as opp. to the margin, from the Gr. for a shield of some sort (peltophorum = bearing a shield)
pelvi- = referring to the pelvis (shape) (pelviformis)
pendul- = referring to an earring, hanging, drooping (penduliflora = hanging flowers / pendula)
penn- = referring to a feather (pennatus)
penta- = referring to the number five (pentanthus = five-flowered)
per- / peri- = surrounding (perfoliata = leaf surrounding a stem)
peregrin- = foreign (peregrina)
perenn- = perennial (perennis)
persic- = referring to Persia (Iran) (persica)
-persic(...) = referring to a peach (Lycopersicum ((the tomato)) = wolf-peach probably because this fruit was originally believed to be deadly poisonsous)
perspic- = transparent, clear (perspicuus)
pertus- = perforated (pertusum)
- pes = referring to a foot or stalk (longipes = long-stalked)
petiol- = referring to a petiole, leaf stalk (petiolatus / petiolaris)
petr- = referring to rocks (Petrocallis = rock beauty) (petraea)
phaedr- = splendid (Phaedranthus = splendid flower)
phalae- = referring to a moth (Phalaenopsis = moth-like)
phaner- = obvious, open (phanerophlebia = conspicuously-veined)
phell- = referring to cork (Phellodendron = cork tree)
phil- = loving, desirous of (Philodendron = tree loving because they often grow thereon)
-phil(...) = loving, desirous of (anemophilus = wind-loving)
-phleb(...) = referring to veins
-phloe(...) = referring to bark
phlog- = referring to a flame (Phlogacanthus = flame + thorn)
phoeni- = referring to the genus Phoenix or the color purple - (Phoenix is the date palm genus) (phoenicolasius = purple hair)
pholid- = referring to a scale (Pholidocarpus = scaly fruit - a genus of palms)
-phor(...) = bearing, carrying (cladophora = branch-bearing)
phora- = referring to a thief (Phoradendron = thief of a tree - the mistletoe genus)
-phorb(...) = referring to food or fruit
phot- = referring to light, shining (Photinia, because of the glossy foliage)
phragm- = referring to a wall or fence or hedge
phryg- = referring to Asia Minor, Phrygian
phyl- = referring to leaves
phys- = referring to a bladder (Physalis; Physocarpus = bladder fruit)
-phyt(...) = referring to a plant (calophytum = beautiful plant)
pict- = painted, variegated (picta)
pil- = referring to a cap (Pilocarpus = cap-shaped fruit) (pileata)
pili- = referring to hairs (pilifera = hair-bearing)
pilos- = hairy (pilosus)
pilul- = referring to a globule (Pilularia = a little ball)
pini- = referring to a pine tree (pinicarpus = fruits like a pine cone)
pinn- = referring to a feather (pinnata)
pipt- = falling, descending (Pipturus = descending tail)
pisc- = referring to a fish (Piscidia = fish + kill - the Fish- Poison Tree of tropical America)
pis- = referring to the genus Pisa, the Pea (pisifera = pea-bearing)
pit- = referring to pitch or resin (Pittosporum = resinous seed)
pithec- = referring to a monkey, an ape (Pithecoctenium = monkey's comb)
placat- = calm (placatus)
plag- = referring to an oblique angle, sideways (Plagianthus = flowers at an angle)
plan- = flat (planifolia = flat-leaved / planatus / planipes = flat + foot, i.e., stalk)
platan- = referring to a plantain, or the Plane Tree genus, Platanus (platanoides)
platy- = broad, flat (Platycerium = flat horn - the stag-horn fern)
plect- = plaited (Plectocomia = plaited hair)
plectr- = referring to a spur (Plectranthus = spurred flower)
plei- = many (Pleiogynium = many female parts)
plen- = full (plenissimus= very full)
pleur- = referring to a side, or a cavity, or ribs (Pleurospermum = ribbed seed)
-plex = referring to trunks or stems (multiplex = many-trunked)
plicat- = folded, pleated (plicatus)
plum- = referring to a plume or feather (plumosus)
plumb- = referring to lead (the metal) (Plumbago, referring to the color of the flowers of this genus)
pluri- = many (plurifolia = many-leaved)
pluv- = referring to rain (pluvialis)
pod- = referring to a stalk - or FOOT (Podocarpus = stalked fruit / podophyllus = stalked leaf)
pogo- = referring to a beard (Pogostemon = bearded stamen)
-pogon = referring to a beard (Andropogon = man/male + beard)
poli- = gray, white (poliofolia = gray-leaved / polifolia)
polit- = polished (polita)
poly- = many (polyanthemos = many-flowered)
pom- = referring to an apple - any fruit similar in shape to an apple (pomacea / pomifera = apple-bearing)
ponderos- = ponderous (ponderosus)
popul- = referring to the poplar (shape) (populifolia = poplar- leaved / populnea)
porc- = referring to a pig (porcinus)
-potam(...) = referring to a river (megapotamicum = large river)
poten- = powerful (Potentilla = diminutive of potens, referring to the supposed medicinal properties of this the Cinquefoil genus))
praecox = premature, early
praest- = noble, distinguished (praestans)
prasin- = referring to the color green (prasinus)
praten- = referring to a meadow (pratensis)
precator- = referring to prayer (precatorius)
premn- = referring to a tree (Epipremnum = growing on trees
prim- = prime, first (Primula, because of its early blooming in Spring)
primul- = referring to the genus Primula, the primrose (primulaceus / primuloides = like Primula)
princ- = princely, of first (prime) quality (princeps)
probosc- = referring to a nose (proboscidea)
procer- = tall (procerum)
procumb- = lying down, procumbent, bending forwards (procumbens)
procur- = extended (procurrens)
propend- = hanging, drooping (propendens)
propinqu- = near, related (propinquus)
pruin- = having a bloom (referring to color and texture) (pruinosa)
prun- = referring to a plum, usually to the color (prunifolius = prune-leaved)
prur- = itch causing (pruriens)
pseud- = false (Pseudolarix = false Larch)
psit- = referring to a parrot (psittacinus)
pter- = referring to a wing (Pterocarya = winged nut; and Pteris, a genus of ferns) (pteranthus = winged flower)
-pter(...) = referring to a wing - ALSO Gr. for a fern (tetraptera = four-winged) (the fern appellation would seem to have come about via the resemblance of the feather part of a wing in close-up to a fern frond -- fascinating, no?)
ptych- = referring to a fold, a wrikle (Ptychosperma = folded seed)
pub- = referring to down (hairs) (puberulatus pubigerus)
pudic- = shrinking, closing, modest (Mimosa pudica, so named because the pinnate leaves fold up the leaflets at night or when touched)
pulchel- = beautiful (pulchellus)
pulchr- = beautiful (pulchra)
pulver- = powdery (pulverulenta)
pulvin- = referring to a cushion (pulvinatus)
pumil- = small, dwarf (pumila)
punctat- = dotted, spotted (punctatus / punctatissima = very much dotted)
pung- = sharp, pointed, pungent, piercing (pungens)
punic- = referring to Punica (Carthage/N.Afr.) Punica, the pome- granate, native to that area OR the color reddish-purple (puniceus)
purpur- = referring to the color purple (purpurea)
-pus = referring to a foot (or basal structure, like a stalk) (leptopus = skinny-stalked / brachypus = short-stalked)
pusil- = insignificant, obscure, small, dwarf (pusillus)
pycn- = thick, dense (Pycnanthemum = densely flowered) (pycnostachya = dense + spike (flowers))
pygm- = pygmy, small, dwarf (pygmaea)
pyr- = referring to a pear, or actually any fruit - OR to FIRE (pyriformis = formed like a pear) (Pyracantha = fire thorn)
pyren- = referring to grain (Pyrenacantha = grain + thorn)) HOWEVER, pyrenaicus refers to the Pyrenees Mts. of France!

Plantnames explained Q.

quadr- = referring to the number four (quadrangularis = four-angled / quadriaurita = four-eared)
querc- = referring to the oak (quercifolia = leaves like an oak)
quin- = referring to the number five (quinquifolius = five- leaved / quinatus)

Plantnames explained R.

racem- = referring to a raceme (racemosa)
radic- = referring to a root (Radicula = little root) (radicans usually means that the plant tends to root from its stem)
radio- / radia- = rayed, radiate (radiatus)
ramos- = referring to branches (ramosus / ramosissima = very- branched)
ran- = referring to a frog (Ranunculus = little frog, because most of the species grow where frogs live, i.e., marshes, ponds)
raph- / rhap- / rhaph- = referring to a needle (Rhapidophyllum, a palm genus, = needle-leaf)
reclin- = reclined, bent backwards (reclinatum)
recurv- = recurved (recurvatus)
rediviv- = restored, revived (rediviva)
refulg- = bright (refulgens)
regal- = regal (regalis)
regin- = referring to a queen (regina)
regl- = referring to a standard or model (paradigm) (regla)
reni- = referring to a kidney (reniform)
rep- = creeping (repens reptans repanda)
resect- = cut off, curtailed (resectus)
reticul- = reticulated, referring to a net, net-veined (reticulata)
retor- = twisted back (retortus)
retro- = backwards (retroflexus = bent backwards)
retus- = notched (retusus)
rex / reg- = referring to a king, royal (regalis)
rhamn- = referring to the genus Rhamnus, the buckthorn
rhiz- = referring to a root (Acanthorrhiza = thorny root)
rhod- = referring to the color red/rose (Rhododendron = rose + tree) (rhodantha = red-flowered)
rhomb- = rhomboid, (rhomboideus / rhombifolia = rhomboid-shaped leaves)
rhop- = referring to a club (shape) (Rhopalostyle = club-shaped flower style)
rhync- = referring to a nose or snout (Rhynchanthus = snout- shaped flower)
rhyt- = referring to a fold, a wrinkle (Rhytiglossa = wrinkled tongue / rhytidophyllum = wrinkled leaf)
ricin- = referring to the genus Ricinus, the castor-oil tree (ricinifolia)
ringens = referring to a hole
ripa- = referring to the banks of a river (riparia)
rivu- / riva- = referring to rivers, streams (rivularis / rivale / rivalis)
robust- = robust (robusta)
-rops = referring to a bush (Chamaerops = dwarf bush)
rose- = referring to the color rose (what else?!?) (rosea)
rostr- = referring to a beak (shape) (rostratus)
rotund- = round (rotundifolia = round-leafed)
rube- = referring to the color red (rubella)
rubig- = referring to rust (color) (rubiginosa)
rub- / rubr- = referring to the color red (rubens / rubra)
ruf- = referring to the color red (rufescens / rufida)
rug- = wrinkled (rugosa)
-rump(...) = referring to a rupture, a break (erumpens = breaking out of)
rup- = referring to rocks (rupicola = cliff-dwelling) (rupestris)
rut- = referring to the color red (rutilans)

Plantnames explained S.

sacc- = referring to a bag (saccifera = sac-bearing)
sacchar- = referring to sugar (Saccharum, the sugar cane genus)
sagit- = referring to an arrow (sagittarius)
salic- / salig- = referring to the genus Salix, the willow (salignifolia = willow-leaved / salicifolia)
sal- = referring to salt (salinus / salicolus)
salp- = referring to a tube (Salpiglossis = tube + tongue)
salv- = referring to helping, saving, healing (Salvia, from the medicinal properties of some species of this the Sage genus)
sambuc- = referring to the genus, Sambucus, the elderberry (sambucoides = like Sambucus)
sanct- = holy, revered (sanctum)
sang- = referring to blood (Sanguinaria, the Blood-Root)
sapid- = tasty (sapidus)
sapien- = referring to ancient wise men/writers/sages (sapientia)
sap- = referring to soap (Sapindus = soap + India)
sarco- = referring to flesh (sarcomentum / sarcodes)
sarment- = referring to runners (sarmentosa)
sativ- = referring to cultivation (sativa)
saur- = referring to a lizard (Saururus = liazrd's tail)
sax- = referring to a rock (Saxifraga = rock-breaker / saxicolus / saxosus / saxatilis / saxorum)
scal- = referring to a ladder (scalaris)
scand- = climbing (scandens)
scap- = referring to a scape (scaposa)
scaph- = referring to a boat (Scaphosepalum = boat + sepal)
schiz- / schis- = cut, divided, split (schizophylla = cleft leaves)
scia- = referring to an umbrella, shade (Sciadophyllum)
-scia(...) = referring to an umbrella (Polyscias = many umbrellas, referring to the large and abundant foliage of this genus)
scirp- = referring to the genus Scirpus, the bulrush (scirpoides)
scler- = hard (sclerocarpus = hard fruit)
scopul- = referring to a cliff (scopulorum = of the cliffs)
scorp- = referring to a scorpion, a coiled structure (scorpioides)
scut- = referring to a salver or dish or shield (shape) (Scutellaria) (scutatum)
seb- = referring to wax, tallow (sebiferum)
-sect(...) = cut (pinnatisect = pinnately cut)
secund- = referring to a side (secundiflora = flowers on one side)
sed- = sedentary (Sedum)
selen- = referring to the moon (Selenicereus = moon cactus, because it's night-blooming)
semi- = semi, half (Semiarundinaria something like a reed, a genus of bamboo)
semper- = always (sempervirens = evergreen / Sempervivum = living for ever))
senil- = old, white-haired (senilis)
sept- = referring to the number seven (septangularia = seven- angled)
seric- = referring to silk (sericeus / sericofera = silk-bearing)
serotin- = late, autumnal (serotina)
serpent- = referring to a snake (serpentarius / serpentinus)
serra- = referring to a saw (serratus / serrula / serrulata)
sesqui- = referring to the number one and 1/2
sessil- = unstalked, sessile (sessilis / sessiliflora = unstalked/ peduncled flowers / sessilifolia = unstalked/ petioled leaves)
seta- / seti- = referring to a bristle (setigera / setacea)
sibir- = referring to Siberia (siberiacus)
sider- = referring to iron (Sideroxylon = iron wood)
-sider(...) = referring to iron (Metrosideros = heart of iron)
sikkim- = referring to N. India (sillimensis)
silic- = referring to sand (siliceus)
silv- = referring to the woods (silvaticus)
simpl- = simple (simplex)
sinensis = native to China
sino- = referring to China
sinu- = sinuous, wavy (sinuata)
-siphon = referring to a tube (Orthosiphon = straight tube usually a flower part)
smilac- = referring to the genus Smilax, Greenbriar
sobol- = referring to offspring (sobolifera = bearing offspring, usually meaning 'runners')
solar- = referring to the sun (solaris)
solen- = referring to a tube (Solenanthus = tube + flower)
-som(...) = referring to the body, the corporeal entity (xanthosoma = yellow body)
somn- = referring to sleep (somniferum = sleep-producing - cf. Papaver somniferum, the opium poppy)
sordid- = dirty, not pure (in appearance) (sordidus)
spath- = referring to a spoon (shape) (Spathiphyllum = leaf-like spathe)
spatu- = referring to a spoon / spatula (shape)
specul- = referring to a mirror (Specularia, Venus's Looking Glass) (speculum)
specios- = showy, spectacular (speciosum)
specta- = spectacular (spectandus)
-sperm(...) = referring to a seed (Dictyosperma = seed with network- markings)
sphaer- = referring to a sphere (sphaerocephala = round-headed)
spic- = referring to a spike (of flowers) (spicatus spicant / spiculifolia = spiked leaf)
spin- = referring to a spine (spinosa / spina-christi = Christ- thorn)
spir- = referring to a spiral (Spiranthes = spiral flowers (inflo- rescence), an orchid)
splend- = splendid (splendida)
-spor(...) = referring to a seed or spore (Hymenospora = mambraneous seed)
spum- = referring to spume or froth (spumaria)
spur- = false (spurius)
squal- = dirty (color) (squalens squalida))
squam- = referring to scales (squamosa / squamata / squamigera)
squarr- = spreading (squarrosa)
-stachy(...) = referring to a spike (of flowers) (Acanthostachys = thorny flower spike)
stans = standing, upright
-staphy(...) = referring to a cluster of grapes (Arctostaphylos = bear + grapes, alluding to the fact that bears love to eat the fruit; one of the species of this genus is uva-ursi, meaning grape + bear)
stell- = referring to a star (stellatus)
-stem(...) = referring to stamens (Pentstemon> = five stamens)
sten- = narrow (Stenocarpu = narrow fruit)
steph- = referring to a crown (Stephanandra = crown + anthers)
-steph(...) = referring to a crown (macrostephana = large crown)
-stich(...) = referring to a row (Polystichum many rows (of spore cases on this fern genus))
-stict(...) = referring to spots or glands (chlorosticta = green-spotted)
stigm- = marked (stigmatus)
stipul- = referring to a stipule (stipulata)
stolon- = referring to runners (stolonifera = bearing runners)
-stom(...) = referring to a mouth
stram- = referring to straw (color) (stramineus)
strepto- = twisted (streptophullus = twisted-leaved)
striat- = striped (striatus; viridistriata = green-striped)
strict- = erect, rigid, upright, stiff (stricta)
strig- = referring to stiff hairs or bristles (strigosa / strigillosa)
strob- = referring to a cone (e.g., of a pine) (strobilifera = cone-bearing / strobus / strobilacea / strobilanthes = cone + flower)
strum- = referring to a tumor (strumatus)
styra- = referring to gum (styraciflua = flowing with gum)
suav- = sweet, fragrant (suaveolens)
sub- = somewhat, under, almost, not-quite -- often elided as in suffruticosa, a combining-form of sub and fruticosa = sub-shrubby (subhirtella = somewhat hairy)
suber- = referring to cork (suberosus)
subul- = referring to an awl (shape) (subulata)
suffr- = referring to a shrub (suffruticosa = somewhat shrubby)
sulc- = referring to a furrow (sulcatus)
supin- = prostrate (supinus)
sylv- = referring to forests (sylvatica)
sym- / syn- = together, united (Symphoricarpos = together + to bear + fruit, referring to the clustered fruit)

Plantnames explained T.


tabul- = referring to a tablet, therefore flat (shape) (tabuliformis)
tard- = late (tardiflora = late-flowering)
tartar- = referring to Central Asia (tartaricus)
taur- = referring to a bull (taurinus)
taxi- = referring to the genus, Taxa, the Yew (taxifolius = Yew-like leaves)
tect- = referring to a roof (tectorum)
tenax = tenacious
tenebr- = referring to shadows (tenebrosus)
tenell- = small, delicate (tenella)
tenui- = slender, thin (tenuifolia = thin-leaved)
teret- = circular, cylindrical (teretiformis - in the form of a cylinder)
terebinth- = referring to turpentine (usually the smell) (terebenthifolia = leaves with a turpentine-like odor)
tern- = referring to the number three (ternata / ternifolia = three-leaved)
terr- = referring to (the) earth (terrestris)
tessel- = tessellate (a squared pattern) (tessellata)
testud- = referring to a tortoise (testudinaria = like a tortoise shell))
tetra- = referring to the number four (tetragonus = four-angled)
-thal(...) = referring to a branch (Pleurothallis = side branch)
-thamn(...) = referring to a plant, a bush (Rhodothamnus = red plant)
-thec(...) = referring to a sheath (microthecum = small sheath)
therm- = referring to heat, hot springs (thermalis)
thyrs- = referring to a flower cluster (+ or - pyramid-shaped) (thyrsoidea)
tigr- = referring to a tiger (striped) (tigrinus)
til- = referring to the genus Tilia, the Linden tree (tilioides)
tinct- = referring to a dye (tinctoria)
tomentos- = pubescent (tomentosum)
tort- = twisted (tortilus)
toxi- = referring to a poison (Toxicodendron = poison tree)
trachy- = rough (Trachycarpus = rough fruit)
tremul- = trembling, (tremuloides)
tri- = referring to the number three (Trifolium = three leaves, the Clover genus)
trich- = referring to a hair (tricholepis = hairy scale)
trist- = sad, bitter (usually referring to color, or shape, like somber color, or drooping) (tristus /triste)
triti- = referring to the wheat plant (triticina)
trivi- = common, frequent (trivialis)
-trop(...) = turning towards (Heliotropium = turning towards the sun) (also can refer to a keel)
tuberc- = referring to referring to small tuber-like protruberances
tubi- = referring to tube (shape) (tubiflora)
tumid- = swollen (tumidus)
tunic- = referring to a tunic, i.e., covered (tunica / tunicata)
turbin- = shaped like a top (turbinatus)
typh- = smokey, dull (typhina)

Plantnames explained U.


ulm- = referring to the genus Ulmus, the elm (ulmifolia = elm-shpaed leaves) (ulmoides = elm-like)
umbel- = referring to umbels (umbellifera = bearing umbels) - an umbel is a flower cluster generally in the form of an umbrella, i.e., the flowers radiate from a central point
umbrac- = referring to an umbrella (shade) (umbraculifera = umbrella-bearing)
unc- = referring to a hook or spine (uncinatus / biuncifera = bearing two-pronged spines)
und- = referring to a wave (undulatus)
ung- = referring to a claw (unguis-cati = cat-clawed) (unguiculatus)
uni- = referring to the number one (uniflora = single-flowered)
urceolat- = referring to an urn (shape) (urceolatus)
uren- = burning, stinging (urens)
-ur(...) = referring to a tail (Leonurus = lion's tail)
urs- = referring to a bear (ursina)
usn- = referring to the genus Usnea, a lichen (usneoides, - the specific name of Tillandsia usneoides, the Spanish Moss)
util- = useful (utilis)
utric- = inflated (utriculata)
uva- / uvi- = referring to a grape (uvifera = grape-bearing / uva- vulpis = fox + grape)

Plantnames explained V.

vagans = wandering, erratic
valid- / valer- = strong, true (validus) (Valeriana = strong, referring to the medicinal uses of Valerian)
vari- = variable, various (variatus)
variegat- = variegated (variegata)
velut- = velvety (velutina)
venos- = referring to a vein (venosus)
ventr- = unevenly swollen (ventricosa)
venust- = beautiful (venustus)
vermi- = referring to a worm, spiral form (vermiculatus)
vern- = referring to Spring, vernal (vernalis vernus)
vernic- = referring to varnish (vernicosa)
verruc- = verrucose, warty (verrucosus / verruculosa)
versi- = various(ly) (versiflora = variously-flowered)
vertic- = referring to a whorl (verticillatus)
verus (vera) = genuine, true
vesicul- = referring to vessicles, bladders (vesicularis)
vesper- = referring to the evening - also western (vespertillus vesperinus)
vesti- = clothed, covered (usually with hairs) (vestitus)
villos- = hairy (villosum)
vimin- = referring to a wicker, therefore, long, pliable branches (viminalis)
vin- = referring to wine (vinifera = wine-bearing)
viol- = referring to the genus Viola or the color violet - (violaceus = partaking of the color violet)
vires- = referring to the color green (virescens)
virgat- = referring to a twig (wand) (virgatus)
virgin- = referring to a virgin - usually meanig white (virginalis)
virid- = referring to the color green (viridiflora = green-flowers)
visc- = sticky (Malvaviscus = sticky mallow) (viscaria)
viti- = referring to a grape (vitifolia = leaves like a grape)
vitta- = striped (vittatus)
volub- = twining (volubilis)
vulg- = common (vulgaris)
vulp- = referring to a fox (vulpina)


Plantnames explained W.

waldsteinii = named for the Austrian Count Franz Waldstein-Wartenburg (Cardamine waldsteinii)
watereri = named to the Waterer family from a leading nursery firm based at Bagshot and Woking in Surrey (Cotoneaster x watereri)
wulfenii = named for an Austrian botanist, Franz von Wulfen

Plantnames explained X.

xanth- = referring to the color yellow (xanthocarpus = yellow-fruited / xanthinus)
xer- = dry (xerocarpa = dry-fruited) (Xeranthemum = dry flower)
xiph- = referring to a sword (xiphioides)
xyl- = referring to wood (Xylobium = wood + life, referring to the epiphytic habit of these orchids)

Plantnames explained Y.

yuccifolium= with leaves like Yucca (Eryngium yucciflorum)

Plantnames explained Z.

zebr- = referring to a zebra (striped) (zebrina)
zeylan- = referring to Ceylon (Sri Lanka) (zeylanica)
zona- = referring to a zone, a band (color/shape) (zonatus / zonale)
zyg- = united (Zygopetalum = united petals, an orchid) (Zygadenus = united (paired) glands)

Bronnen betekenis van wetenschappelijke/ Latijnse plantennamen - Sources "plant names explained/ meaning plantnames/ derivation of names":

Botanisches Wörterbuch - Saftenberg. (1939)
Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen - Zander (1979)
Plantenterminologie - Jac. De Bruijn. (1973, 1981)
Plant Names Explained. Botanical Terms and their Meaning - Hillier. (2006)
Verklarend plantenwoordenboek: ABC van het plantenlatijn. Betekenis van botanische plantennamen.
Plantenamen nader verklaard - Wim Oudshoorn (Kosmos Uitgevers, 2009)